The bipolar disorder was formerly known as manic depression. This is a major affective disorder or mood disorder, characterized by abrupt changes of mood.
Bipolar disorder is a complex condition in which mania leads to insomnia (that can last for several days), hallucinations, nervous breakdowns, paranoia episodes and disorientation.
What is bipolar disorder?
This is a complex genetic disease. Mood swings that occur in this disease can vary from episodes of clinical depression to obsessive behavior or excessive euphoria. These mood swings may manifest from mild to most complex form, and last for a few minutes or hours. If these changes occur frequently, this condition is called a repeating cycle.
Along with changes of mood the people with bipolar disorder have confused thoughts. It becomes difficult for them to perceive the world and function in society.
What causes bipolar disorder?
At the moment, the causes of the bipolar disorder are unknown. The one thing that is for sure is that it is transmitted hereditarily.
At what the bipolar disorder occurs?
Bipolar disorder usually appears between the ages of 15 to 24 years old, and lasts a lifetime. The first episodes of bipolar disorder almost never appear in children or people after 65 years.
The signs of this disease are strictly individual. While some people may have just a few symptoms, others have them in a big quantity that results in loss of ability to work and live normally.
With frequent exacerbations and relapses, bipolar disorder has a high risk of recurrence, if the disease is left untreated. Patients with acute manic behavior are in need of hospitalization to protect them from dangerous actions. Also in need of hospitalization are patients with acute depression because there is a risk of suicide.
About 90% of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder, which is a difficult form of mental illness, are in need of hospitalization. Every second patient may be hospitalized several times in the history of the disease.
What are the symptoms of clinical depression in bipolar disorder?
- Overeating or loss of appetite
- Difficulty in focusing, memorizing and making a decision
- Frequent fatigue and decreased vital energy
- Feeling of guilt, uselessness and despair
- insomnia, early awakening, excessive sleepiness;
- loss of interest in favorite activities and hobbies, including sex;
- persistent physical symptoms that can’t be treated, such as headaches, stomach cramps or stomach disorder;
- the constant feeling of sadness, fear or devastation;
- thoughts of suicide, suicidal attempts
What are the symptoms of obsessive behavior in bipolar disorder?
- Incoherent and entangled thoughts
- Grandiose inventions
- Inappropriate euphoria
- Inappropriate irritability
- Inappropriate social behavior
- Loud speaking and quick manner of speaking
- Incorrect judgment
- severe insomnia
How is diagnosed the bipolar disorder?
As with any mood disorder, there are no medical tests to make an accurate diagnosis. After a general medical examination, the doctor will assess the symptoms and signs of illness. The doctor will ask you to describe any hereditary diseases in your family. He may conduct laboratory tests to rule out the presence of other serious ailments that affect mood.
In addition, your doctor will talk with your relatives to accurately set the start time of the state of euphoria and agitation. Since the euphoria presents positive thoughts, it is difficult to define clearly the moment when this state entered in pathology. Maniacal behavior often affects the course of thinking, the ability to correctly assess the goings-on and human behavior in a society, thus placing it in an awkward position. For example, in the phase of manic behavior, people can take inappropriate decisions regarding the business or financial condition. Therefore, early diagnosis and on time treatment play a critical role in bipolar disorder.
What are the methods of treatment for the bipolar disorder?
The treatment consists of the appointment of mood stabilizers, such as lithium. Also to stabilize the mood anticonvulsants can be used along with antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Sometimes with stabilizers, antidepressants are prescribed to improve the depressive mood. Also, to reinforce the effect of antidepressant drugs, the doctor may prescribe catalysts.